In past, I’ve blogged about IP Indices. (See here, here and here). However, most conversations about IP Indices revolve around the GIPC’s International IP Index and USTR’s Special 301. Often, an index which misses attention is the International Property Rights Index (IPRI). Its all comprehensive nature, not merely confined to intellectual property being the plausible reason.
What is the IPRI?
Unveiled in 2007 by the Property Rights Alliance, the IPRI (the Index) is the sole international index indicating the worldwide status of property rights. It studies the correlations between the protection afforded by a nation to property rights and economic prosperity. It’s based upon three components –
(i) The Legal and Political Environment (LP)
(ii) The Physical Property Rights (PPR) and
(iii) The Intellectual Property Rights (IPR)
Countries are graded on a scale of 0 to 10, with 10 being the highest and 0 being the lowest for a nation’s property rights system. Same interpretation is applicable to the three components. (For more on the methodology, see here – page 9 onwards).
IPRI and Intellectual Property :
Not delving into LP and PPR (being outside the scope of this blog post), the IPR component of the Index evaluates the protection granted by a nation to intellectual property.
The Index not only measures the overall protection afforded by a nation to IP. But also, assess protection granted to its two major forms – patents and copyright (Barring the years 2007 and 2008 where an assessment on trademark rights had also been undertaken).
Patent protection is gauged from a de jure perspective while a de facto approach is applied for determining copyright piracy.
- Patent Protection :
Since the inception of the Index till its most recent version (apart from the 2014 IPRI since it’s unavailable in public domain), the criteria and source for evaluating a country’s patent laws has remained static. The source being the 2005 Ginarte-Park Patent Protection and the criteria being –
(ii) Membership to international treaties
(iii) Restrictions on patent rights
(iv) Enforcement and duration of protection
- Copyright Piracy :
From 2007 until 2009, the source for determining a country’s piracy level was the 2006, the 2007 and the 2008 Special 301 Report respectively.
Commencing from 2010 till 2013, reliance on IIPA’s submission to the USTR for that year’s Special 301 Report was the source. Additionally, for the years 2012 and 2013, BSA’s and IDC’s 8th and 9th Annual Global Software Piracy Study were also respective sources.
For the most recent version (the 9th Edition, 2015), BSA’s Global Software Survey titled, “The Compliance Gap” served as the source.
For the years 2007 until 2009, piracy levels of four distinct industries – (i) Business Software (ii) Records & Music (iii) Motion Pictures and (iv) Entertainment Software have been included. From 2010 onwards, piracy levels of only business software and records & music industry were included.
India, IP and the IPRI :
Except for the first year, countries have been ranked on each of the components (the legal and political environment, the physical property rights and intellectual property rights). I’ve compiled India’s overall and IPR rank since the inception of the Index until 2015. Just to reiterate,the 2014 IPRI is not available in public domain.
|Year||Overall Score||Overall Rank||Number of Countries Evaluated||IPR Score||IPR Rank|
As evident from the above Table, India’s overall and IPR score falls in the mid- range. Thus, signifying an “average” property rights regime vis -a`- vis other nations.